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P4 medicine and healthcare emphasizes predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory healthcare instead of reactive disease care.

The concept has been actively promoted by Dr. Leroy Hood, the world-leading pioneer of systems biology and member of the National Academy of Science, the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine in the United States. P4 medicine stems from three main trends: 1) systems biology and system medicine providing means to unravel the complexity of diseases, 2) new capabilities in collecting and analyzing digitalized health data and 3) consumers increasing interest in managing their own health. The figure below describes further the definitions of the four P’s.

P4 Healthcare: Predictive, Preventive, Participatory, Personalized.


Many risk factors for diseases are already known and information is constantly accumulating. Genetic testing of these risk factors will become more common and regular longitudinal analysis allows identification of new “actionable genetic variants”. The use of this information provides means to optimize wellbeing.


Genetic, molecular, cellular and organ level data provides indicators of early signs of diseases. Healthcare focus will shift from treatment of diseases to maintaining health and wellbeing. Screening of early signs of diseases allows instant preventive intervention.


Individuals will have an active role collecting health related data with various devices. Learning to interpret the collected data gives individuals tools for early detection of signs of diseases. Empowering individuals to utilize MyData to make decisions to maintain health and wellbeing is a key element for success of P4.


Individual is the center of P4 healthcare. Monitoring and maintaining of wellness is tailored based on individual’s needs and risk factors. Treatment of diseases is individualized based on molecular profile of the disease and the genetic make-up of the individual.